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Technical assistance to the Modernization of Agriculture Programme (TAMAP)


Technical assistance to the Modernization of Agriculture Programme (TAMAP)


Report of the Study Tour to Vietnam

11/08/2019 - 18/08/2019



Eng. M M J S Wijekoon,

BSc Eng, MSc Eng(water & Environmental),C Eng, MIESL

Provincial Director Irrigation, Uva Province




1.0 Executive Summary

1.1Overview of the Training

Nearly 72% of paddy production, the staple food in Sri Lanka, is grown during the wet season in dry areas where water resources are already stressed. Climate change datasets for Sri Lanka were derived using outputs from the UK Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research Model (HadCM3) for selected scenarios for the 2050s, chosen from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Emission Scenarios Report. Water balance modelling and a geographical information system were used to model and map the impacts on irrigation requirements for wet season paddy. We examined two scenarios. The A2 scenario represents a heterogeneous, regionalised, market-led world, with high population growth, leading to a rapid increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The B2 scenario follows a similar regionalised future but with more moderate population growth and more concern for the environment and local sustainability, and a slower rate of increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Results suggests that, during the wet season, average rainfall decreases by 17% (A2) and 9% (B2), with rains ending earlier, and potential evapotranspiration increasing by 3.5% (A2) and 3% (B2). Consequently, the average paddy irrigation water requirement increases by 23% (A2) and 13% (B2).

Mapping with GIS highlights the importance of considering spatial variation. Climate change impacts on wet season paddy production are positive in the extreme south, confirming the results of a previous study. However, the impacts are negative across most of Sri Lanka. The adaptations needed are different in the two regions. Furthermore, spatial variation points to a further adaptation; the transfer of some paddy production to positively affected areas, which would not have been so clear if only point modelling had been used.

With the above analysis it is very important to share knowledge on study and research on modern irrigation techniques used in other countries for the security of food in Sri Lanka.


1.2 Introduction and Background in a glance

More than 95% of the water on earth is in the oceans. Only about 0.6% of water is easily accessible to humans.

            Accordingly recent global context for agriculture is rapidly changing and challenges are increasing. Several factors contribute to this change. Many countries have slowly reformed agricultural policies. Provincial department of irrigation is the responsible authority to handle the minor irrigation where almost fifty percent of irrigable land in the province comes under minor irrigation.

New generations leave agriculture, low harvest, low income and urbanization, climatic changes, extreme droughts and rainfalls, high fertilizer and pesticides usage, weak PPP, Lack of modern technology, drinking water contamination, and obsolete policies are some major issues in the field of agriculture.

 This report will provide an overview of how Vietnam has coped with the similar problems.










2.0 Global position of Vietnamese agricultural exports


Source: Trademap-ITC, GSO – Vietnam 2017


Vietnam is a country very similar to Sri Lanka in terms of environmental conditions. Therefore, studying the progress made in the field of agriculture by Vietnam is very important.

Some important things can be clearly understood when studying the above chart .The export of processed fish fillets and shrimp has come in first place. These factories have been built near large reservoirs and the fish foods are released to the reservoirs after the release of fish fry. However, about 178 billion USD which marks the highest revenue comes from vegetable exports. This sector is at the primary level in Sri Lanka. These areas can be very well developed in Sri Lanka with a good vision.

The agricultural sector has a huge responsibility to reach the above objectives. Enhance Food security and reach adequate production using low cost labor management. Increase employment opportunities in the remote areas. Prepare for the Big Foreign Market. And finally Eradicate poverty and create social and political stability.



3.0 Measures taken by the Vietnamese government for this achievements

3.1 Investment to support production, infrastructure

3.1.1 Investment in Irrigation

2011-2015, total capital for irrigation by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development ~31.000 Billions VND (70% in total)

Proportion of irrigated cultivated area 68.8% , 82.3% annual crops.

Actual irrigated efficiency of irrigation systems 77,7%.

Actual drainage efficiency of irrigation systems 89,3%.

3.1.2 Investment in Infrastructure

98.6 % of communes having car road in 2011 (96.9 % in 2006 and 94.2% in 2001)

National electric grid covers 99.8% of communes, 93.4% of villages. 98% of households have electricity (2011).

96.2 % of communal office and 86.6% of household having telephones; 99.5% communal office having computer and 75.3% commune having internet connection.


3.2.1 Reform policy: Household’s economy development

No basic subsidies

Giving farmers the right to make decision on production. 

Letting farmers consider themselves as real owners of land, land market appeared.

Over 33 thousand households implementing large scale farms.

Developing household business (324,691 SMEs).

In 2016, There are about 5.13 millions non-agricultural households in rural area.

More than 9700 agro cooperatives, in which 92% provide services to 10 million farms.

Support agro production of farm household: credit, technology, infrastructure, service, etc.

96.2 % of communal office and 86.6% of household having telephones; 99.5% communal office having computer and 75.3% commune having internet connection.

3.2.2 Land Policies

Empower producers.

Converting agricultural land use rights;

Land use right transfer;

Leasing of land use rights;

Inheritance of land use rights;

Convert state owned forest and agriculture farm

Convert land to Land consolidation

Strongly develop land use rights market, including the primary market and the secondary market, especially for agricultural land to encourage accumulation of land.

Flexibility in converting rice land to cash crops.







3.3   Scientific and technological development

Direct support for research and application of Science and Technology:

National Seed Program

Innovative farming

Develop suitable Machines for the requirements (ref Agriculture mechanization in Vietnam)

Support for capacity building and training

Support for enterprises having investment in science and technology for agricultural production

 Priority in high-tech development


3.4  Labor and agricultural work

Enhance training for farmers, vocational training for rural labor, labor export; focus on training to improve knowledge for managers, local officials;

Export labor and focus on improving knowledge for admin and local staffs

Support for vocational training and create jobs for workers whose land is withdrawn;

Agricultural services, vocational counseling and employment for rural workers through information channels such as VOV1, VTV2, VCTV16... Vietnam Agriculture newspa

per, Journal of Agriculture ...;

After 5 years of implementation of the Scheme 1956, more than 2.1 million rural workers supported by Scheme 1956, reaching 90.4% of  the proposed plan


3.5  Stepping up the activities of Agricultural Extension

Extension system from the central to local levels

Over 10,000 demonstration sites.

Organizing 450 training courses for 14,000 extension workers and farmers.

Information and communication activities (documentation, forum ...):

Implementation of the project extension


3.6 Attraction of private investment

Tax incentives

Credit incentives: incentives for the use and lease land

Other incentives and investment support

Support policies for small and medium-sized enterprises

Policies to encourage enterprises to invest in agriculture and rural

4.0 Goals

During the study we were able to visit The International Rice Research Institute. And also visited some rice paddy lands and discuss with farmers. (IRRI) is the world’s premier research organization dedicated to reducing poverty and hunger through rice science; improving the health and welfare of rice farmers and consumers; and protecting the rice-growing environment for future generations. IRRI is an independent, non-profit, research and educational institute, founded in 1960 by the Ford and Rockefeller foundations with support from the Philippine government. The institute, headquartered in Los Baños, Philippines, has offices in 17 rice-growing countries in Asia and Africa, and more than 1,000 staff


Suitable Measures to be taken by the Sri Lankan policy makers to stepping in to this type of achievements as mentioned above

  1. Contour farming is very important when using machines. We already started such projects in Ridimaliyadda with the combination of agriculture department. The observed knowledge will be very helpful to design such projects

  1. Drip and Pressurized irrigation.

We have already designed and started such projects with the combination of Agriculture Modernization Project in Buttala and Siyambalanduwa



  1. Irrigation and water facility  for dairy industry.

We have already started such facility at Boralanda Farm, Bindunuwewa farm  and Okkampitiya Farm. The knowledge gained will be very useful to design such projects.

  1. Irrigation facility for fisheries industry.

We are already doing many projects with the inland fisheries section in the agriculture ministry hence the gained knowledge will be very helpful in developing such facilities.





















Institutes visited

Ho Chi Minh City:

Southern Horticultural Research Institute (SOFRI)



MARD- Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.


Explore links on the left-hand side for details on their programs, even by districts.






Cuu Long (Mekong) Delta Rice research Institute.


Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Engineering & Post Harvest Technology



Biotechnology Center for of Ho Chi Minh City


Vietnam Pepper Association




Field Crops Research Institute


Tan Minh Duc Cooperative


Fruit and Vegetable Research Institute


The Vietnam Trade Promotion Center of Agriculture


Vietnam Dairy Association




Institute for Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development – MARD


Published Date: 2019-12-30

Created By: Wijekoon


this is a share of Vietnamese experience in agriculture modernization